From the previous parts, we know that;
       1. the chemical shift tells about the types of protons in the molecule
       2. integration of signal area tells the relative numbers of protons
       3. magnetic equivalent protons tell about sets of protons or signals

However, the number of lines in the spectrum does not neccessary equal to the number of sets of equivalent protons. Since one type of protons may appear in many lines which is called multiplicity.


              1. Students understand and can explain how one nucleus affect other nuclei.

              2. Students understand and can explain multiplicity or spin-spin spliting correctly.

              3. Students can interpret first-order or simplified spectra quickly and effectively.

              4. Students understand concept of coupling constants and factors affecting coupling constants.


There are 4 subtitles of Multiplicity;

              4.1 Multiplicity : Signal Splitting

              4.2 Coupling Constant

              4.3 Types of Spin-Spin Coupling

              4.4 Multiplicity Problems


              1. How does one nucleus affect other nuclei?

              2. What is coupling constant?

              3. What are factors that affect coupling constants?

              4. Why some spectra are more complicated than some spectra?